Oboo, was originally the realm of roads and, play, orientation and administrative role. In "the Qing Dynasty will be examples of", "Lifan yuan. Xinjiang science" records: "nomadic have a common boundary, no mountains and rivers and recognition, to Shi Zhi, fine sounding name:" OBO ". Then, in the Mongolia nationality and the evolution of the fetish, even in the ordinary way, via Oboo to dismount worship. The poem: "Qian Qi Yunshi to wish Bixue and wind, river stone temple worship with charity. Plug the sky far endless, pedestrian worship had residual plexus."
On the "Aobao" reason, there are many beautiful legends
Legends about the "red Siegel OBO" on the Mongolia pastoralists in Xilamuren grassland, is one of them.
There is a legend of the mother of a Mongolia family of herdsmen got sick, can not treat. The herdsmen will be walking to the holy mountain Mount Wutai, burn incense and pray. He is a very kowtow, a matter of conscience. He walked on, ah, day and night, brave the wind and dew reach that day, Mount Wutai, has One's breathing is barely perceptible. But he still bite, climb the side of kowtow, little thought of his own life. Wait until the holy temple, he just burn the worship, a head fell, unconscious.
Mount Wutai has a magic Obo, the Mongols from afar devout heart very touched, before the recovery, the tribute of the followers of Buddhism was transferred to the front of his. The herdsmen came back, really think Buddha apparitions, mother saved, suddenly sat up.
He was reluctant to eat, to wrap up the tribute, behind the back, strode down the hill. Along the way, he still refused to rest. At that time, the night, walk, get lost. At that moment, his eyes suddenly bright, bright light in front of him wandering. At that time, he did not know that this change is the lamp of the Oboo Mount Wutai.
He followed the lamp, walked, walked, not two days on the back of the Xilamuren grassland. At daybreak, in HongGeEr hill, the light suddenly stopped. Herdsmen back home, the old mother has been fully recovered.
The next day herdsmen helped her mother, came to the honger Shanbao, base with rocks from a OBO was named "honger Aobao", let OBO of Wutai mountain gods forever in Xilamuren grassland installation. This day is the Chinese lunar calendar in May eighteen. Since then, every year on this day, the children came to the shepherd and his ao'bao honggeer.
About red Siegel Obo, in Xilamuren grassland herdsmen there is a legend.
In the year 1219 to 1224, Gen Gi Khan expedition. His expedition army, Guo Baoyu, Zhang Rong and many other Han generals. Guo Baoyu is the Tang Dynasty zhongshuling descendants of Guo Ziyi, through astronomical art, Qishe good. In the Han General Commander of the Chinese, to the people of the Central Plains the respect of Kuan (Guan) without worship, each of them to a, in yurts before the altar of the Guan Gong broadsword, to pray for the victory of the battle, a centaur peace.
To the Yuan Dynasty Emperor Shun Zhi Shun years (AD 1333), a Xilamuren local herdsmen, get one year Memorial in yurts before the Duke Guan Dao. The lunar calendar in May eighteen that day, the herdsmen devoutly to carry HongGeEr Oboo Guan Gong sword, it brings up high. Since then, every year Oboo, will public offerings in HongGeEr Oboo before.
There are five kinds of comparison:
A statement that is a relic OBO is the history of the Mongol tribes war memorial heroic dedication of the heroes and fieldstone Cairn and burial of the souls of the OBO generally stored hero.
The second argument is that, when the tribes fight, they must try to seize the mountain. The victory of the party, they killed soldiers buried in the mountain, with the stone the grave covering, as a souvenir. In the long war, today I this victory, the remains of the martyrs buried in the mountains. Tomorrow your victory, to seize the top of the mountain, but also the remains of the martyrs buried here. So, in the course of contacts, the two sides rubble sacrificing the remains are buried together. Battle both sides of any party, as long as to seize the this piece of grassland, HILLS MEMORIAL souls come with their spoils. In the course of time, the stones grow, they called it "oboo".
Third that is, local pastoralists in Mongolia Oboo rain altar of heaven. Since ancient times, the grasslands of herdsmen by livestock, nomadic. However, in the year of drought, lack of grass everywhere. Herders with their traditional methods. On the top of the hill since base heap, by tribal leaders lead, praying beside pile, to offer sacrifices to heaven rainfall disaster relief.
Fourth that is, Oboo businessmen to travel with stones piled up as a sign for the colts, caravan. The animal husbandry Xilamuren grassland people have such a legend. Because, Xilamuren grassland since ancient times is "Camel" must pass through.
Fifth argument that OBO tribe as war transfer information, and almost on the Central Plains of the beacon tower of the ancient battlefield role.
According to the opinions of the relevant history experts, OBO probably divided into four types: one is used to indicate the landmark of the banner (county), provincial boundaries; is a kind of happiness to ghost town worship, bless the people's peace and happiness and setting; most is the third to buried Su Mu dari GA (township level executive), Jasaq banners, heroes, celebrities, living Buddhas and lamas. The fourth one is the marking of the road. The Qing Dynasty Yao Yuanzhi wrote these words: "foreigners each need to ride, ride to ride. A small stone base on the hill, called EBO (now said "Aobao"), to mark the distance."
Anyway, "Aobao" in the minds of the prairie people, a symbol of gods in its place, hereditary teleport, constitute the very strong belief. After the introduction of Buddhism, memorial activities and religious activities together, is it add religious color, so as to further deified.
"Aobao" is generally used stone, stone built, but also useful to mound up, and the willow branches around the building. The eastern region of Inner Mongolia Obo, were generally conical, the western region is tower type. In the past, rich families have set up "home oboo". Periphery has 12 small heap a lot around the middle of Oboo, more common throughout Inner Mongolia. The middle of the main body, on both sides of the foil six small, or according to the directions of southeast northwest of the three small foil. The main Oboo also placed in hardware, grain, five silk, Wubao kind. Obo, most of which are built on the top of the mountain or hilly, the general was round in tens of feet, the top grafting willow branches or elm branches, its shape is like a beacon, distant look, straight into the sky, it is very sacred. It is particularly worth mentioning is that in the top of the Obo, generally in has three roots "mani rod, hanging the banner of tribal and positive close to OBO placed the shining three stranded steel fork, the package before have stone tribute to the table.
Obo, in the grasslands gradually formed many unwritten rules: every time people go out to travel, who "Aobao" path to dismount to visit the "Aobao", pray for a safe journey; also to the "Aobao" add a few pieces of stone or handfuls of soil, then down the road. The shepherd pass by here in the grazing, to add a stone to "Aobao", to bless the booming livestock.
Oboo sacrifice, Mongolia is a major event in the life of a nation. The long history of the Oboo sacrifice. According to the "Han Hun Chuan" records: "the age of the lunar January, long small Chanyu court temple. In May, Congress, the first city, offering the world, ghosts and gods......" Mongolian Oboo is the continuation of this ancient custom and. During the Qing Dynasty, with Lamaism in Mongolia society spread, began to have in tribal units annually held a "Aobao Festival" customs. Sacrifice is generally held in mid May in the Chinese calendar. At that time, but also invited many lamas. Sacrifice will generally to three or four days, like the holidays, herdsmen far and near, both men and women, old and young, to attend.
In Xilamuren grassland, there are also many oboo. According to the historical records, larger OBO: distance Xilamuren town is located one kilometer north of A Riwen Obo, the town of Elgin boarding Oboo, west of 25 kilometers of the white tone check Greek, hada stem Aobao, east of 15 km high Wengong Aobao, northeast of 15 kilometers OBO. In addition, there are hair Delin Aobao, Hu Yage map Obo, Abdul to Aobao, Gong Xiaowen Obo, white tone Aobao, Bagh hi OBO and Mao Dun OBO.
Xilamuren (called River) region's largest existing scale a Obo, is from the town where 9.2 km honger OBO. It is one of the main tourist area of Xilamuren grassland OBO opening.
According to Pu Hui Temple consists of more than two hundred years of rule, the annual Lunar New Year on the 13th held Lama Memorial Aobao activities, the lunar month 18 Xilamuren grassland of the Mongolian herdsmen held grand scale and the grand Memorial Aobao activities. From the seat of government of the north, a 6 meters wide, flat road through red Nagel hill, on both sides of the road, meadows, slopes, scattered everywhere is one of the yurts and community, large and small tourist resort haute (Village) to dizzying.
Reach the red Nagel hill, looked up, the honger OBO stands tall red Nagel peak in 1690 meters above sea level, the momentum of the grand, solemn, awe inspiring. Along the ramp went up to the front of the Obo, you will see, this is a 9 metre high large Obo, divided, three layers, the bottom circumference is 15 meters in diameter, 2 meters high. Xilamuren Tourist Development Zone Management Committee and the town government in June 2001 ad investment 18000 yuan will OBO increase height, for the steady stream of foreign visitors come to visit and worship.
The annual Lunar New Year in early May, the red Siegel OBO layout should have stateliness. On the top of the mani OBO hanging rod, written by the flag of Lamaism sutras, its white silk production. Oboo four stands in the corner edge of the 4 fork three 3 meters tall. From the top to the top of a fork Oboo, root rope, silk cloth and paper be riotous with colour brilliant eyes. Obo positive (South) placed a huge, gleaming knife, made of horse hair and silk tassel fluttered in the wind, with a variety of colors of silk production of Lu Ma Fengqi fluttered in the breeze. The tribute table of the stone had already been cleaned. Everything is ready, waiting for the arrival of the eighteen day of May.
According to legend, "Paul Ma Fengqi" from Gen Gi Khan ensign. That year, Genghis Khan expedition Eurasia, the military flag is sky blue, flag is embroidered with a horse gallops Rufei black horse. The army hit, put the flag up to there. Camping at night, the general flag erected in the camp in front of. Later, the Gen Gi Khan expedition, Xixia, died on the battlefield, it will be the flag in front of his spirit. The Mongolian competing to imitate, become the custom. Until today, in front of Mongolian herdsmen's yurts or housing, mostly have a mud and Taiwan, buried a tall pole, pole top Youming to sway a three edged fork. This is called "mani rod." Generally in the bar rectangular flag, flag painting of a running horse, a larger body at the four corners of the flag with lion, tiger, the dragon, the Phoenix as a foil. This is called "Lu Ma Fengqi." Mongolian called "Hey, Maori" means "the fate of the horse".
"Lu Ma Fengqi" is a sign of national prosperity and dignity of Mongolia. After Lamaist Buddhism spread in the Mongolian areas, the Lu Ma Fengqi made some to change, to change the original rod pillars, the middle pull a rope, Lu Ma Fengqi hanging on the rope, and are generally red, yellow, blue, white, green five flags, color on behalf of all the things in the world, the added seven Jane, eight treasures, Basu and so on. The basic pattern has not changed, but more daring. Mongolia family Fengnianguojie, married, to update Lu ma. Before the war, out of the house, they must be dedicated to the horse. The more people died, will drop to Paul Ma Fengqi. Let the good friend, also can not ride a horse from Paul Ma Fengqi under.
In the eyes of herdsmen Obo, the symbol of God in its place, which has a strong religious color. Obo is built and worship in ancient times, relatively simple. Announced by the shaman, the so-called village to protect God choose a certain mountain or hilly, as their location. People in this place of earth or stone pile, held several holy ceremony, even if built oboo. This is a kind of soil in the hall, every year for a certain period of time, the nearby residents here to worship God, pray livestock development, a flourishing population. Libi, people sitting together, drinking horse milk wine, eat mutton, milk and other food, and hold horse racing, archery, wrestling and other three recreational and sports activities.
Aobao Festival, first held in horse racing, and then placed an oblation, by Lama chanting offerings, to participate in worship of the people have to OBO add stones. After singing, dancing, wrestling, and other sports activities. Obo located in the prairie hills, conical altar with stones and clods of earth piled up, hanging above colorful canvas or watercolor paper.
Oboo is in their nomadic area, choose a quiet place, with a pile of stones piled round. "The national customs records, volume nine:" cloud " with in all processes...... The round shaped, its top, Britain cube corner cast the flag, the buried hada party, five kinds of grain, the number of silver money each year will offering. & quot; Ruan Kuisheng "Jilin Mongolia endemic in mind," cloud: & quot; Xiangshan Zhong Lei stone, hanging silk that prayer, match reports, Ueki table, predicate, & quot; ebbo & quot; have no dare to commit.
The choice and construction of Oboo, majestic and lush mountains and hills. Oboo have its name to name, where the most mountain or fixed names. Situated in the hills above the Oboo, or spring, most with stones piled, generally rounded top, surrounded with a wicker ring. In the eyes of the Mongolian, OBO symbol mountain, go out to travel, meet the OBO will dismount visit, pray, and readily pick stone added.
Mongolia Oboo variety. According to different classification criteria can be divided into: adult worship Obo, exclusively for men worship Obo, specifically for women worship OBO; regional assemblies of the league level OBO (ancient Chu pull stem OBO), flag level OBO (Pegatron OBO), Aobao sappanwood sappanwood OBO; normalized Tun all or normalized number Tun everything and normalized private Obo, and so on. From the number of Oboo point of view, there is a separate Oboo, some is Oboo group. Obo, roughly the same as that on the Circular Mound Altar stacked stone for Taiwan, the platform is divided into large, medium and small layer, overlapping of a cone, about 10 feet, the shape of beacon towers, distant look and spires, in-line roller. Obo, ranging from the number, some separate 1, some communities, seven tied, big in the middle as the main body, on both sides of the accompany three; have a large OBO center, East, West, South ` north of the foil three small OBO become 13 small Obo Group.
This kind of cloth o-po Oboo, including Hill Road, pass, Oboo Oboo Oboo, beach in Aobao, cliff Oboo etc.. "The Qing Dynasty will case, Lifan yuan, Xinjiang science and" Hutchison said: & quot; nomadic junction, no mountains and rivers for identification, stone base is a bag, and OBO said. Now called the oboo. & quot; Mongolian ancestors, always is & quot; then the car room, check felt cottage & quot; the nomadic life in the vast expanse of grassland, desert, Gobi, hills. In order to facilitate the production and life, and, at the top of the mountain, the water's edge, roadsides, etc. all conspicuous place, base on a variety of stones as the direction of the logo, in order to find and calling. This has a great effect on animal husbandry, hunting and military. The first is not necessarily a sign of borders, then not all Oboo were " " marker;. But because they are established as a symbol, if in the border area, it is natural to become two sumus, two flags, two union, even on both sides of the dividing line.
Qing Dynasty Mongolian songyun Poem & quot; Sabu (Mongolian border) based Obo, action rules to Mercedes Benz & quot; that is, good generalization. In the Suiyuan Tongzhi ", recorded a Tumote has & quot;, offering & quot; custom of OBO: & quot; Guan Obodo in the flag of the border and he's boundary on the hill or the original Xi Zhu, celecoxib for the flag of the sacrificial rites of the & quot;. When the flag in the chief executive will attend, called " sacrifice, have real reasons and correction of border patrol suobu. & quot; in the Ordos also have similar customs, in the "Genghis Khan Memorial," a book, remember & quot; cult in seven wells in the Nangang two Obo, Hangjin, Otog banner princes to north to go, draw two flags to the boundary line. " the late Qing Dynasty, even for determining the boundary and the establishment of the oboo. For example, Wushen De Geer OBO is Qing Guangxu twenty seven years (1901), Hari Merlin to stop Wang Yefang, specially established in Inner Mongolia and Shanxi border.
Oboo sacrifice is an important carrier of Mongolia nationality. Oboo sacrifice is one of the Mongolia Grand National shamanism. Generally, there are three kinds of traditional Mongolian Aobao the sacrificial offering form: a blood sacrifice, that is, slaughtered strong cattle sheep enshrined in the OBO to offer sacrifices to gods. The two is sprinkled offerings, "sprinkle note ceremony", namely in the Oboo before dripping milk, cream, milk and other objects to pray for happiness. In modern times, but also increased the liquor, snacks and other sacrifices. Three is an offering made by fire, in front of the OBO heap dry twigs or dry cattle manure lit, sacrifice queuing around the fire three times, circling side edge read their surnames; then offerings, put all the sheep into the fire. The hotter the fire the better, because it is a symbol of family business prosperity. In addition to sacrificial rites, by offering OBO derived from some special customs. The modern Mongolia people worship Obo, is essentially the traditional worship of gods blessing misfortunes custom inheritance. Oboo generally consists of branches and debris. The most Aobao rocks and branches of architecture, with Mongolia worship stone, tree worship custom inseparable. Mongolia has since seen the myths and legends. The stone and the life together, this shows that the ancient times since the ancient times, the Mongolian worship of stone. Mongolia people also worship various trees, especially the kind of worship, lush greenery tree trunks tall and straight.
About Oboo time, generally choose the lunar new year in May or July. The annual Lunar New Year in May, the green grass everywhere, the swallows go north, the flag of Mongolia nationality began Oboo activities. Herdsmen from all directions gathered in Obo, OBO decorated with pine, tamarisk, colorful flowers, display in front of the OBO milk food, "amu Su", cakes and other offerings, front desk placed sheep. Memorial ceremonies by deep Fu Zhongwang elders presided over host personally to OBO incense, toast, hada, sing the song of sacrifice, and please Lama read by the Taiping. At this time, all over the mountains and plains come to worship the people prostrated themselves on the ground, three worship nine prostrations, prayed to the gods to bless the good crop weather, five animals thrive, no disaster disease, everything is auspicious. " The memorial ceremony is completed, the host will send everyone to enjoy the offerings. At the same time to start the game, the main project for the three men's technology". With the continuous improvement of the development of the society and the Mongolian People's material and cultural life level, Aobao Festival content is more rich and colorful. Shepherd after the traditional ritual ceremony was held, but also for horse racing, wrestling, archery, singing and so on many with national characteristics of the entertainment activities, and drinking enthusiastically, enjoy carnival. In the meantime, the elderly to take holy water to the herd to sprinkle a note; young men and women tend to take this slip out, climbing play, chasing each other, romance, about set for life. Sung by the famous Mongolia family "aobaoxianghui" in the song, is the young men and women in the group before the dating scene.
Oboo includes not only the Obo, also containing the offering, Ji Shanyue etc.. "The west is" waterways, "Junggar on the ridge, lignin trees banners chanting Memorial ceremony". Obviously the nature of nature worship. Is God in the Oboo Shamanism and enjoy the festival. Obo God is regarded as the protector of clan, Aobao Festival is an important ritual, in the annual Lunar June / July held, worship sheep, wine, cheese, ignition, burning incense, by a shaman dances, participants will sacrifice eating. Family of Ewenki and other have similar Oboo ceremony. The Tibetan Buddhism spread in the Mongolian areas, shaman dances generally has been changed to Lama chanting, Aobao Festival is no longer purely shamanic ritual activities 。